Return of the ndn6 Network

In 2014, I installed NDN Forwarding Daemon (NFD) router on a tiny 128MB virtual machine. I named this node ndn6: IPv6 NDN router, because the virtual machine, purchased from the original Low End Spirit forum for €3.00/year, was an IPv6-primary service. I idled this router for three years, and then shut it down in 2017.

I created NDNts: NDN libraries for the modern web in 2019. Since then, I have been publishing my own content over Named Data Networking, most prominently the NDN push-ups. NDNts does not require a local forwarder, so that I operated video repositories by directly connecting to a nearby testbed router via UDP tunnel. Shortly after, I started experimenting with QUIC transport, which involved deploying several NDN-QUIC gateways to translate between NFD's plain UDP packets and Chrome's QUIC transport protocol.

One day, I realized: my content is sent to the global NDN testbed, and then retrieved back to my servers for delivery to browsers over QUIC. My video repository in Buffalo and NDN-QUIC gateway in Montreal are quite close to each other, but the packets are taking a detour to Boston, increasing latency by at least 10ms. Also, since I statically assign a testbed router for each application, a downtime of that router would bring my application offline as well. I thought, instead of operating isolated applications and gateways, I should setup my own NDN network.

Setting up a new NDN network is no small feat. NFD and NLSR implement forwarding and routing, but I also need to:

  • Decide on a topology between different routers.
  • Assign a name prefix to each router.
  • Install and update software in each router.
  • Generate configuration files for NFD and NLSR, and modify them as the topology changes.
  • Monitor the network and know about ongoing problems.

IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Responder for KVM VPS

I Want IPv6 for Docker

I'm playing with Docker these days, and I want IPv6 in my Docker containers. The best guide for enabling IPv6 in Docker is how to enable IPv6 for Docker containers on Ubuntu 18.04. The first method in that article assigns private IPv6 addresses to containers, and uses IPv6 NAT similar to how Docker handles IPv4 NAT. I quickly got it working, but I noticed an undesirable behavior: Network Address Translation (NAT) changes the source port number of outgoing UDP datagrams, even if there's a port forwarding rule for inbound traffic; consequently, a UDP flow with the same source and destination ports is being recognized as two separate flows.

$ docker exec nfd nfdc face show 262
congestion={base-marking-interval=100ms default-threshold=65536B}
  counters={in={25i 4603d 2n 1179907B} out={11921i 14d 0n 1506905B}}
     flags={non-local permanent point-to-point congestion-marking}
$ docker exec nfd nfdc face show 270
congestion={base-marking-interval=100ms default-threshold=65536B}
  counters={in={11880i 0d 0n 1498032B} out={0i 4594d 0n 1175786B}}
     flags={non-local on-demand point-to-point congestion-marking}

The second method in that article allows every container to have a public IPv6 address. It avoids NAT and the problems that come with it, but requires the host to have a routed IPv6 subnet. However, routed IPv6 is hard to come by on KVM servers, because virtualization platform such as Virtualizor does not support routed IPv6 subnets, but can only provide on-link IPv6.

On-Link IPv6 vs Routed IPv6