NFD nightly APT repository

Last year, I started building NFD nightly packages in GitHub Actions. So far, installation is a manual procedure: the user must manually download the ZIP files from, decompress them, and figure out the dependency among various .deb packages. Starting today, I'm publishing NFD nightly packages in an APT repository, and you can install them with apt-get command.

Add the NFD nightly APT repository

Add the repository with the command that matches your platform:

# Ubuntu 18.04 (bionic), amd64 (laptops and servers)
echo "deb [trusted=yes] bionic main" \
  | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/nfd-nightly.list

# Ubuntu 20.04 (focal), amd64 (laptops and servers)
echo "deb [trusted=yes] focal main" \
  | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/nfd-nightly.list

# Debian 10 (buster), amd64 (laptops and servers)
echo "deb [trusted=yes] buster main" \
  | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/nfd-nightly.list

# Debian 10 (buster), armv7 (Raspberry Pi 3 or 4)
echo "deb [trusted=yes] buster main" \
  | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/nfd-nightly.list

# Debian 10 (buster), armv6 (Raspberry Pi Zero W)
echo "deb [trusted=yes] buster main" \
  | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/nfd-nightly.list

If your operating system and CPU architecture combination is not listed, it is not supported by NFD nightly. See the previous post on how to request a new platform.

Travis CI Pricing Change - Usage based Billing

"Welcome to Travis CI!"

This morning I waked up to an email titled Welcome to Travis CI!.

Travis CI is a cloud-based Continuous Integration platform that automatically compiles and tests my code whenever I push a commit to GitHub, and warns me by email if there is an error. I started using Travis CI in 2014, so it feels weird to receive a "welcome" email today.

The email reads:

You are on Free.

You have 1,000 credits left - these will begin counting down automatically as soon as you run your first build. You can use your credits to build on both private and open-source repositories using Linux, macOS, and Windows OS. 1,000 credits will be replenished automatically monthly. Additional Credits purchase is not available for Free Plan.

NFD nightly packages

NDN Forwarding Daemon (NFD) is the reference implementation of Named Data Networking (NDN) forwarding plane. The software is continuously developed, but binary releases happen rather infrequently. Recently, I made a workflow to build NFD and related software automatically.

Download page:


Which platform should I choose?

  • The platform identifier has two parts: Linux distribution and CPU architecture. Both parts must match your machine.
  • Linux distribution:
    • bionic is Ubuntu 18.04.
    • buster is Debian 10. This includes Raspberry Pi OS.
  • CPU architecture: is in Git and Completely Rebuilt

I started making websites since 2001. This website,, started in 2006. In the past 11 years, I've rebuilt the site several times, switched from ASP to PHP, and moved from Windows dedicated hosting to shared hosting and eventually to Linux VPS. So far, every time I want to perform a major edit to the website, I copy original versions of affected files to a backup folder on my computer, and then go ahead to do the edit. After having tested the modification locally, I upload changed files via FTP or SFTP to the server. One constant worry over my head is, what if I lose all the files on my computer, and my hosting provider vanishes so I can't get them back? Another headache is, sometimes I may make an edit incorrectly, but I couldn't revert it back because I didn't copy the original files to the backup folder as I determined the change wasn't "major" enough to warrant a backup.

During my studies at University of Arizona, I learned a useful tool called git. Git is a source control system: it allows developers to create a repository and put source code into the repository, and will automatically keep track of all the edits applied to each file. By putting website source code into a git repository, I can find out what modifications I've performed to each file over time, regardless of whether it is "major" or "minor". Additionally, I can synchronize the git repository with a remote git server, so that the server has a copy of my website, including edit histories as well. This would solve both the worry of losing files, and the headache of not having an earlier version to revert to in case of an incorrect modification.

After delaying this projects several times, I am finally determined to move into git repositories in Apr 2017. At the same time, to keep the website source code as clean as possible, I decide to try out two new technologies: static site generators and Composer. That is, I would rebuild, copying page by page, into a new website stored in git repositories.

I spent about 2 months for this rebuild/move, and I'm happy to announce that is now under source control.

Main Site with Composer